Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Gulf War - An Environmental Disaster Essay - 2826 Words

While militarily, the Gulf War of 1990-91 seemed like a quick and decisive victory, it was an environmental disaster, both at the time and when considering the residual impacts. Environmental travesties were committed by both the Iraqi aggressor and the allied forces, ranging from use of minerals like depleted uranium in weapons to deliberate dumping of oil into the Gulf. Oil fires and spills had a severe impact on all forms of life, most prominent in the Gulf region, but with possible global implications. Human health, wildlife, natural resources and ecosystems were all adversely impacted by actions taken and not taken by both sides of the conflict. Controversy over where the oil that spilled into the Persian Gulf in the early†¦show more content†¦The impacts of the spill were not immediately known because of the slow flow of information coming out of the region. Also, a gag order originating in the Bush White House specifically prohibited American scientists from discussing the impact of the oil spills. (Hawley, p 47-48) The water exchange rate in the Persian Gulf is relatively slow and the area has classic low energy shorelines. All of this meant that cleanup efforts would be slow and that the natural recovery would take years and years. The low energy shoreline along the Saudi Arabian coast means that there are no crashing waves that could wash away oil on the beaches. Also, the shore has a naturally gentle slope, which means that high tide would wash oil all the way up the beach, impacting all the shore birds and other organisms. (Hawley p 54) The threat to human life by the oil spills in the Gulf was very real. In fact, the recovery efforts in the area focused on desalination plants that supplied water to much of the population. (Hawley p 53) The contamination of Gulf water was a direct threat to the water supply. In addition, much of the 500 kilometers of coastline that were affected by the oil spills consisted of wetlands and mangroves. (Clark p 102) Both of these provide important habitats and are essential to the sustainability of all life. The oil spills that began in January 1991 had both direct and indirect consequences for marine animals living in the Persian GulfShow MoreRelatedPetroleum And Natural Gas Exploration Essay1701 Words   |  7 Pagesefforts in recreating themselves have since stalled, leading to unmotivated employees and decreased profits. Although British Petroleum has solid production sites in Gulf of Mexico, Alaska, and various areas of the U.S, the brand’s name remains so tainted from past violations. The declining price of oil, along with that environmental factors that affect the company, both nationally and globally, have exacerbated this stall and caused the company a major issue in recovering their public image, reputationRead MoreEssay on The Environmental Disasters of War990 Words   |  4 PagesThe Environmental Disasters of War The war in Iraq is a battle that will have many aftereffects. The land, air and water will no doubtingly be targeted. It is inevitable that the war will tale no toll on the environment. The use of weapons of mass destruction is one of the causes for the disastrous outcome that may occur from the war. They contain many hazardous chemicals that will target the environment and cause waste products to be contained in the atmosphere. Weapons of mass destructionRead MoreHome Depots Social Responsibility Approach1611 Words   |  7 Pagesemployees that are well treated will serve the company well. Home Depot was also founded on the importance of corporate community involvement, and is currently focusing its community efforts on at-risk youth, affordable housing, the environment and disaster preparedness, response and relief. As another part of its pursuit of socially responsible behavior Home Depot has explicitly stated values that include taking care of its people, excellent customer serv ice, building strong relationships, entrepreneurialRead MoreFossil Fuels and Climate Change Essay1208 Words   |  5 Pagestechnological products. So we can use cars, planes and all modern products. But fossil fuels cause climate change at the same time. Greenhouse gas, nitrous oxides and a great deal of harmful gas which are from fossil fuels are causing serious environmental problems. Therefore we need to be concerned about the problems caused by fossil fuels and the solutions. From human entered industrial civilization era. Our human beings are always finding more and more fuels to support increasing requirementRead MoreThe Effects Of War On The Environment1223 Words   |  5 Pagesresearch. What is war? What are the different types of conflicts that can be classified as war? What is your country or origin? Has your country experienced or engaged in war since 1960s? What are the general effects of war on the environment? What do think are the effects of modern war and military activities on biodiversity? How does war affect the ecosystem? What are the effects of war on human beings and other animals? Do you think the nuclear bombs and other chemicals used during war affect the environmentRead MoreOil And Natural Gas Is An Indispensable Part Of Human Beings1465 Words   |  6 Pagesproducing products also needs oil, we need conventional oil for everything. However, since human beings did not fully consider the use of non-renewable, environmental damage of oil and the social costs, people are over-rely on oil and uncontrolled product and consume of oil has caused too many problems, for example, economic problems, environmental populations and military problems. Oil and water resources occupies an extremely important position in the national economy, and is indispensable for humanRead MoreAnalytical Failure Of Iraq During Persian Gulf War1599 Words   |  7 Pagesin Persian Gulf War Affiliation Student’s Name â€Æ' Introduction Failures analysis is the process of gathering data and information in order to find the cause of failure especially when the goal had been set. Analytical failure of war, on the other hand, is failures by decision making bodies to make appropriate decision which will lead to victory. This failures occurs when military and political leaders come up with war strategies which when implemented leads to failures or losses. War analyticalRead MoreThe Exxon Valdez Oil Spill1581 Words   |  7 Pagesfor dealing with environmental hazards resulting from previous resource use and environmental standards that are no longer acceptable today. Through the instances of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, the Kuwait Oil Fires, the Hurricane Katrina devastation and the Sydney Tar Ponds, this paper will develop an argument supporting the idea that governments should be given the responsibility to handle environmental hazards that result from the prior use of resources as well as environmental regulations thatRead MoreNew Orleans And Southern Louisiana2407 Words   |  10 PagesDecember of 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, tearing through the levee systems, and resulting in massive flooding that eventually covered 80% of New Orleans (1), leading to the most significant number of deaths by the storm. As images of Hurricane Katrina were displayed on front pages and television sets across the counry, Katrina becam e a strategic research site for sociological theory and research of how identity shapes a natural disaster (1). In this essay, I want to explore the fateRead MoreThe Effects Of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay1525 Words   |  7 Pagesa soldier returning home from war experiences PTSD. Any person that has experienced a traumatic situation can have the potential of experiencing symptoms of PTSD. Such as, experiencing a natural disaster, a serious accident, a life-threatening illness, physical abuse, sexual assault during childhood or adulthood or any other situation that invokes feelings of helplessness or intense fear. PTSD can be caused by several ways, from genetics to a person’s environmental history of traumatic events. No

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison - 1012 Words

Within today’s society, the word ‘feminism’ is commonly misinterpreted. Feminism is the support for equality of genders throughout society, including the elimination of gender stereotypes and gender roles. While Ralph Ellison incorporates ‘the Brotherhood’ in Invisible Man, which is supposed to advocate for equality, the members of the group still do not put focus on the feminist movement. Women are sexualized, objectified, and not seen as equal to men on countless occasions. In Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison creates a plot in which the male characters are degrading to women, even while some are involved in an equality group, and characterizes males as the dominant and working gender. In the beginning of the novel, the exposed female in the battle royal scene displays the objectification of women where the narrator is only viewing the girl as an object that provides physical pleasure, rather than a person with a mind and subconscious. The narrator sees â€Å"[...] a magnificent blonde -- stark naked,† and describes that â€Å"The hair was yellow like that of a circus kewpie doll, the face heavily powdered and rouged [...]†. Not only does he describe her hair and face, he goes on to say, â€Å"Her breasts were firm and round as the domes of East Indian temples [...]† (Ellison, 19). While one may argue that the narrator was objectively describing a person in front of him, the narrator illustrates the sexual acts he was fantasizing about doing with her. He notes that he wants to â€Å"go to her andShow MoreRelatedInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1366 Words   |  6 Pagesfighter left standing, amidst unbridled carnage. The titular narrator of Ralp h Ellison s novel Invisible Man, is no stranger to those experiences. In the beginning, he is forced to fight several other black boxers for the amusement of many heckling, white spectators. Through the imaginative use of objects, symbols, allusions, and the actions, thoughts, and purposes of the spectators, pugilists and risquà © entertainment, Ellison seeks to express a powerful image of American race relations and womenRead MoreInvisible, Invisible Man, By Ralph Ellison1994 Words   |  8 PagesInvisible Race and Gender in Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison In Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, the unnamed narrator shows us through the use motifs and symbols how racism and sexism negatively affect the social class and individual identity of the oppressed people. Throughout the novel, the African American narrator tells us the story of his journey to find success in life which is sabotaged by the white-dominated society in which he lives in. Along his journey, we are also shown how the patriarchyRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1246 Words   |  5 Pagesauthor of Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison, was born March 1st, 1914, and died April 16, 1994. He was born in Oklahoma City and named after Ralph Waldo Emerson, a famous journalist and poet. When Ellison was 3, his father died of a work-related accident, leaving his mother to care for him and his younger brother. As a young boy, he always wanted to major in music, and he went to Tuskegee University to become a composer and performer of music. The summer before his senior year in college, Ellison went toRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison Essay2164 Words   |  9 Pagestrying to rebel against the status quo. Protest literature emerged from the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920’s to 1930’s. Protest literature is used to address real socio-political issues and express objections against them. In his novel, The Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison exposes the racism in society by focusing on the culture, in regards to the expected assimilation of African Americans and how the time period largely influenced the mistreatment of the African American population. He also uses symbolsRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1277 Words   |  6 PagesInvisible Man, by Ralph Ellison, is a story about a young African American man whose color renders him invisible. The theme of racism as a hurdle to individual identity is present throughout the story in a variety of examples. From the beginning of the novel the theme of identity is evident as the narrator states, †Å"All my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned someone tried to tell me what I was† (Ellison, p. 1254). In the midst of living in a racist American society the speakersRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison909 Words   |  4 PagesInvisible Man by Ralph Ellison is a novel which embodies the universal theme of self-discovery, of the search to figure out who one truly is in life which we all are embarked upon. Throughout the text, the narrator is constantly wondering about who he really is, and evaluating the different identities which he assumes for himself. He progresses from being a hopeful student with a bright future to being just another poor black laborer in New Your City to being a fairly well off spokesperson for aRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison977 Words   |  4 PagesBook Review: Invisible Man Invisible Man is an American Literature novel published by Ralph Ellison in 1952. The novel traces the experiences of a young college black man growing up in Harlem, New York. Attempting to succeed in a predominantly white society, the narrator encounters shocks and disillusionments from being expelled from college to hiding in an underground hole to protect himself from the people above. He lives a repressed life as an â€Å"Invisible Man† for he believes that society ignoresRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1032 Words   |  5 Pageslike modern society some people leads, and others will follow. Subjects will conditionally generate their own ideas and realize these ideas rather than just be assigned tasks that question their beliefs. The author Ralph Ellison illustrates it best. Ellison’s realistic fiction Invisible Man perpetuates the manifestation of manipulation over the minorities in this society. As the narrator embraces every identity he has been given, h e starts to become more independent, and a leader in his community. Read MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison3051 Words   |  13 Pagesportrayed through the narrator’s, the invisible man, journey through life. The problems with society are foreshadowed by the racism and the symbols of the color white presented in the paint plant. â€Å"The Invisible Man† by Ralph Ellison depicts the African Americans struggle to be viewed as an equal member of society through the narrators struggles through life to discover his individuality or place in society while the white man or the community conspires to â€Å"keep the black man down†. The story follows theRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1481 Words   |  6 PagesInvisible Man is a novel by Ralph Ellison, published in 1952. It addresses many of the social and intellectual issues facing African-Americans in the early twentieth century. This includes black nationalism, the relationship between black identity a nd Marxism, and the reformist racial policies of Booker T. Washington, as well as issues of individuality and personal identity. The grandson of slaves, Ralph Ellison was born in 1914 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma. His

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Case Study Facebook (A) or (B) Free Essays

Faceable have aided organizational communication by spreading information fast and father. In reality formal chain of command is an incomplete communication, so organizations need to develop informal communication network to better transmit information, such as grapevine. For example, the statuses on Faceable can contribute to the transmission of information. We will write a custom essay sample on Case Study Facebook (A) or (B) or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although face-to-face interview is high in information richness, non-verbal language also has an important impact on the outcome of employment interview decision. For example, with the pictures posed on Faceable, the clothing people wears can transmit clear signals. On the other hand, it is complicated to transmit information through new media because with not all informal communication bring benefit to organizations, such as rumors. Therefore, organizations should focus on rumor control, and online media (Faceable) needs to enhance private information security because personal information may be misused by hostile person. Miranda’ reaction would not the same when she heard the rumor about Rick’s activity which is not rue because interview, including face-to-face interview, telephone conversation etc. Is relatively higher in richness than rumor which Is thought belong to â€Å"chat† type. For example, Miranda has had an interview with Rich, so Miranda has more potential information about Pick with highly non-verbal and Para-verbal cues. Yes, it reflects the â€Å"one up, one down† of gender differences In communication because men tend to be more sensitive to power dynamics than women. For example, men are more boastful about their competence; Instead, women are low-key In showing their viability, so women Is considered In a one down position. Therefore, Deborah decreases the times of posing something on Faceable or even no accounts on Faceable. Miranda should hire Deborah. Pictures and statuses can show what Rick really looks like. Rick are more boastful about his capabilities than Deborah, and he minimizes his weakness In performance. Moreover, It Is easy to regular verbal behavior during Interview, so Miranda should turn attention to non-verbal cues. If Miranda hires Rick, uncertainty and risks will Increase. How to cite Case Study Facebook (A) or (B), Free Case study samples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Virtualization and Cloud Computing Child Protection Nonprofit Organiz

Question: Discuss about theVirtualization and Cloud Computing for Child Protection Nonprofit Organization. Answer: Introduction The report depicts that cloud computing technology is able to offer complete solution to the nonprofit child protection organization. The solution will provide competitive advantages with top level management system and complete integrated approaches so that the combining strategy can provide efficient and cost effective service to the organization. The report will discuss why the remote administration, resource management and SLA management system is needed to be acquired by the cloud based solution. It will also demonstrate the reason for which the backup, disaster recovery and application resilience are required to be adopted to develop the over operation of the system. Finally, the report will provide the importance of SLA guidelines and how they can be used to access the SLA. Discussion on the Requirements for Remote Administration, Resource Management and SLA Management The existing data management system of the organization is traditional and the data management has become inefficient in nature. In order to develop the overall management the organization has planned to adopt a cloud based solution, so that manual adjustment can enhance the capacity of the database (Rittinghouse Ransome, 2016). The professional cloud solution has certain features including cloud ecosystem, cross platform integration, application program integration support and IT based cloud infrastructure. The selected cloud vendor is Microsoft where, the infrastructure service is Microsoft private cloud, software MS office 365 and the Platform is windows azure including .net, java and Php (Jadeja Modi, 2012). Remote Administration The remote administration is a mechanism that allows the cloud consumers to perform in the remote locations. The IT resources will minimize the amount of effort including the time and overall services. In this case, the web application interface is directly connected to the remote administration system that helps to control the overall service. On the other hand, the cloud administrator is connected to the remote administration service via different management tools. The management of the cloud service is different from the on premise private IT resource from all aspects. Again, a cloud based resource is transferred to the cloud provider being a part of the control and responsibility. Nowadays, remote administration service tools helps to connect and process different computers and servers together. It helps to avoid the technical risks (Beloglazov, Abawajy Buyya, 2012). The administrator will manage the complete system by monitoring without any external interruption. The professionals will help the end users to perform efficiently. Figure 1: remote administration (Source: Jadeja Modi, 2012, pp-877) Resource Management The resource management process is referred to as the usage and selection of the most effective resource for companys improvement. The resource might be tangible or it might be financial, device based or labour resources (Liu et al., 2015). This is the decision making process in which an organization can select the best suited option for the improvement of the company. It will provide a clear evidence to let the organization know that how many employees are busy and how many still not (Jadeja Modi, 2012). Particularly for this organization, the resource management team is divided into financial resource management, human resource management and inventory resource management. In order to develop the resource management system the organization is needed to allocate the resources of the organization and these resources includes different advanced technologies (Sadiku, Musa Momoh, 2014). Microsoft cloud solution serves automation software tools such as timesheet software, tracking and monitoring software. An appropriate resource management system will optimize the time and improve the bottom line. SLA Management Service level agreement (SLA) is referred to as a contract between the consumers and the service provider (Beloglazov, Abawajy Buyya, 2012). It will help the organization to perform up to the expectation of the clients. There are some agreements that are needed to be maintained by the organization to develop the overall system. The specific requirements are as follows: Whenever the data will be required the authorized employees can access the data from the storage. A standard or benchmark is specified to which the level of current performance off the organization will be performed (Garg, Versteeg Buyya, 2013). Response time is available according to the time. Usage statics are needed to be provided by the system. According to the user requirement the data might be changed including the overall system (Garg, Versteeg Buyya, 2013). Discussion on the Consideration of Application Resilience, Backup and Disaster Recovery Application Resilience The application resilience can be classified based on its affect on the consumers. As a single entity the complete application environment, data replication and digital devices are combined. These following categories are as follows: After the outage of the application the manual restart option is available but on the basis of the state of the data restart processes are applied in the practical field. The users are capable to resume the application whenever required and the manual repositioning system is also available (Jadeja Modi, 2012). Within a possible boundary the consumer and the service providers can transact their data when required. The distributed application is a system dull of complexity and the configuration, operation and the overall management system is collaboratively applied to the cloud solution so that the consumes can reflect their point of view (Whaiduzzaman et al., 2014). Backup As the traditional management system was based on file management thus data handling technology was very confusing and complex as well (Sadiku, Musa Momoh, 2014). Thus the organization is needed to setup a backup so that when any data is required that can be fetched from the data storage without any interruption or external attack. Disaster Recovery Before implementation of any cloud based technology an organization should analyze all the risks that might occur due to failure of the technology (Dinh et al., 2013). As in this case the confidential data could get hacked or attacked by the outsider and they can misuse these. Therefore, the organization must keep panning for the data recovery and all other disaster recovery. External and internal both data can be recovered by implementing proper cloud based solution (Rittinghouse Ransome, 2016). The Microsoft cloud vendor act very efficiently thus, it can fix all the disaster. Usability of Erls SLA Guideline to Access the Appropriate SLA The SLA guideline will help the organization to build a more efficient configuration. The guidelines are as follows: Revisit before finalization: The architecture must be applied once before practical implementation so that the organization will be able to understand whether the system is feasible or not (Garg, Versteeg Buyya, 2013). Marketing tool implementation: Marketing tools are needed to be used so that the business application becomes beneficial for the organization (Espadas et al., 2013). As the organization is nonprofit thus they do not want to focus o the benefit but they want to focus on the management system. Conclusion From the overall discussion it can be concluded that, the organization has adopted Microsoft cloud based solution for the organization thus, cost effective, reliable and flexible system has been generated. The report has also mentioned the importance and requirement of remote administration, application resilience and SLA management system. Apart from this, it has also mentioned the necessity of disaster recovery, backup and resource management. Finally, the report has also mentioned Erls SLA guideline needed to access the stored data. References Rittinghouse, J. W., Ransome, J. F. (2016).Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security. CRC press. Beloglazov, A., Abawajy, J., Buyya, R. (2012). Energy-aware resource allocation heuristics for efficient management of data centers for cloud computing.Future generation computer systems,28(5), 755-768. Dinh, H. T., Lee, C., Niyato, D., Wang, P. (2013). A survey of mobile cloud computing: architecture, applications, and approaches.Wireless communications and mobile computing,13(18), 1587-1611. Sadiku, M. N., Musa, S. M., Momoh, O. D. (2014). Cloud computing: opportunities and challenges.IEEE potentials,33(1), 34-36. Sadiku, M. N., Musa, S. M., Momoh, O. D. (2014). Cloud computing: opportunities and challenges.IEEE potentials,33(1), 34-36. Jadeja, Y., Modi, K. (2012, March). Cloud computing-concepts, architecture and challenges. InComputing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies (ICCEET), 2012 International Conference on(pp. 877-880). IEEE. Garg, S. K., Versteeg, S., Buyya, R. (2013). A framework for ranking of cloud computing services.Future Generation Computer Systems,29(4), 1012-1023. Liu, J., Zhu, W., Ebrahimi, T., Apostolopoulos, J., Hua, X. S., Wu, C. (2015). Introduction to the Special Section on Visual Computing in the Cloud: Fundamentals and Applications.IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology,25(12), 1885-1887. Whaiduzzaman, M., Sookhak, M., Gani, A., Buyya, R. (2014). A survey on vehicular cloud computing.Journal of Network and Computer Applications,40, 325-344. Espadas, J., Molina, A., Jimnez, G., Molina, M., Ramrez, R., Concha, D. (2013). A tenant-based resource allocation model for scaling Software-as-a-Service applications over cloud computing infrastructures.Future Generation Computer Systems,29(1), 273-286.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Nuclear Iran, Anxious Israel

Introduction Although Iran’s nuclear program still remains one of the most vexing foreign policy challenges confronting the international community, scholars and political commentators still holds the opinion that this issue could fundamentally reshape the strategic landscape of the Middle East in general and Israel in particular (Grotto, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Iran, Anxious Israel specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the meantime, this debate is increasingly typified both by mounting pessimism about whether the diplomatic efforts and economic sanctions spearheaded by Western countries can indeed prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear arsenal, and by fortified optimism that the ramifications of a nuclear-armed Iran are controllable (Edelman et al, 2011). As has been demonstrated in the article â€Å"Nuclear Iran, Anxious Israel†, the conflict exemplified by Iran’s nuclear ambitions is assuming new trajectories, but no viable solution to the impasse seems in sight (The Economist, 2011). It is the purpose of this paper to analyze the above named article with a view to present a well-argued and informative opinion on the Israel-Iran conflict and its implications for the Middle East. Summary of the Article The article, â€Å"Nuclear Iran, Anxious Israel†, demonstrates compelling evidence that Iran is still actively involved in developing nuclear weapons and this Islamic nation could indeed have at least one workable weapon within a year’s time from now if it opts out of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). As noted by intelligence sources, â€Å"†¦Iran has already begun moving part of its uranium-enrichment capacity to Fordow, a facility buried deep within a mountain in Qom† (The Economist, 2011, para. 2). The article is also clear that while Iran employs ambiguous tirades in its talk of nuclear weapons development, the t op brass in Israel knows pretty well that the realization of a nuclear-armed Iran will never be in the best interests of Israel though opinion is still divided on whether and how to rope in Iran with the intention of stopping its nuclear ambitions. The article also brings into the picture the international community, particularly the United States, and attempts to describe how different scenarios may play out in the future should Iran go ahead to develop nuclear arsenal or in the eventuality that Israel launches preemptive strikes on Iran’s nuclear facilities in an attempt to discourage further nuclear development.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Either way, the article is categorical that there is need to approach the Israel-Iran conflict soberly and exercise restraint if a viable solution to the conflict is to be found (The Economist, 2011). Analysis of the Main Points Perhaps one of the main points that come out clearly from the article is that politics, more than Iran’s technical and industrial capabilities, may determine whether the country and its political class will choose to develop nuclear weapons (The Economist, 2011). Here, we need to evaluate the origins and implications of the conflict to understand why politics rather that capabilities inform the probable trajectories of the conflict. In evaluating the origins of the Israel-Iran conflict, particularly in terms of historical, religious, political and cultural facets of the issue, debate has been ranging that Iran is predominantly controlled by religious hardliners afflicted with a messianic passion whose major objective is not to uphold their earthily domination over the Iranian state, but to accelerate the return of the Mahdi (Bon-Meir, 2010). This, according to Grotto (2009), can only be â€Å"†¦accomplished by annihilating Israel, waging war against infidels, an d sowing chaos† (p. 47). This particular author further posits that it is this religious convictions that have propelled the current Iranian leaders, Including President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, toward an end-of-days scenario where they firmly believe that the price for Iran may be national martyrdom, for which its casualties will be overwhelmingly rewarded in the afterlife, while survivors will forever enjoy the favor and goodwill of the returned Mahdi. This evaluation is perhaps most concisely articulated â€Å"†¦by Israel’s prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, in a March 2009 interview for The Atlantic, where he warns that Iran is poised to become a messianic apocalyptic cult controlling atomic bombs† (Grotto, 2009, p. 47). This may precisely be the reason why, according to the article, the prime minister is fronting for Israel to undertake preemptive attacks on Iran nuclear facilities to decisively deal with the fear of a theocratic political regime that embr aces the Shia religious tradition of martyrdom (The Economist, 2011; Silverstein, 2010). In evaluating the geographical ramifications, Grotto (2009) notes that â€Å"†¦a nuclear arsenal would enable Iran’s leadership to deter conventional military threats, thereby reducing the ability of its main military rivals, Israel and the United States, to project conventional military power over it† (p. 45).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Iran, Anxious Israel specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Political analysts are of the opinion that such an arrangement would definitely work to the advantage of Iran since it is bound to give the country some leverage to initiate and prosecute limited regional conflicts against the Jewish state of Israel, other countries in the Middle East, and the United States forces deployed in the region (Grotto, 2009). This point of view has been well elaborated by the auth ors of the article, who suggest that due to the small geographical size of Israel, even a minor nuclear attack could prove disastrous to its own existence (The Economist, 2011). Opinion The authors of this article, in my view, assume a middle ground that provides no foreseeable solution to the conflict at hand. This is understandable considering the magnitude of the issues at hand and the complexity of the foreign relations between the countries that have already been sucked into the quagmire. As has been noted by Edelman et al (2011), it is the opinion of many scholars and political commentators that attacking Iran may not be the best solution for Israel considering the religious fundamentalism and political indoctrination already discussed in this paper. But a conflict of this nature needs to have tangible solutions, which are elaborated below. The authors of the article rightly argue that â€Å"the arguments against an attack [against Iran] are still overwhelming, even for Israe l† (The Economist, 2011, para. 5). The reasons given for taking this viewpoint are varied, including the fact that a targeted preemptive attack on Iran’s nuclear facilities would still only delay the Islamic State, not stop it. It is also true that the economic ramifications for taking such an action could be catastrophic. However, a careful analysis of literature dealing with the conflict demonstrates that it is unwise to insinuate that the Obama administration should continue taking a laid back approach on the issues as suggested by the authors of the article. Indeed, the United States must maintain their active role in the conflict by expressly stating that they are ready to assist Israel to â€Å"†¦contain Iran even if it developed a nuclear arsenal by establishing clear redlines that Tehran would not be allowed to cross without risking some type of retaliation† (Edelman, 2011, p. 45).Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the United States should make it clear that it will be compelled to respond if Iran uses its nuclear arsenal for reasons other than power generation, transfers them to a third party, invades Israel, or increases its support for terrorist networks such as Hamas, Al Qaeda, and Hezbollah. The authors of the article suggest that the international community should pursue a multi-thronged course of action in dealing with the Israel-Iran conflict, namely: â€Å"†¦pushing sanctions, on the one hand, and preparing for a nuclear-armed Iran on the other† (The Economist, 2011, para. 6). But as suggested by Grotto (2006), economic and political sanctions on Iran seems not to have achieved much and it seems they never will, partly due to the economic muscle of the country due to its petroleum resources and partly due to countries such as Russia and China, who have refused to support the UN Security council in imposing tougher sanctions on Iran. Yet, the authors of the ar ticle fail to provide a roadmap of how Israel and the West can live with a nuclear-armed Iran in the event that Tehran fails to curve in to sustained sanctions. Indeed, the perspective that Tehran will give in to sustained sanctions, in my view, is far too sanguine by virtue of the fact that it rests on the questionable suppositions that economic sanctions will inarguably elicit or induce caution and restraint on the part of Iranian political and religious leaders. The best bet in the current conditions, it seems, is to prepare living with a nuclear-armed Iran. The authors of the article are of the opinion that Iran should be viewed as an international pariah should it fail to halt its uranium enrichment programme. In addition, the authors argue that the international community should not only push for tougher sanctions, but they should also step up the clandestine operation to disrupt Iran’s nuclear facilities (The Economist, 2011). This arrangement, in my view, constitutes a valid plan of action not only because of the religious fundamentalism embraced by Iranian leaders and their indoctrination with annihilating Israel and issues of national martyrdom (Grotto, 2009), but other nations in the Middle East will acquire incentives to start their own nuclear programs to hedge against Iranian weapons capability if Tehran is allowed to continue with uranium enrichment (Bon-Meir, 2010). Indeed, Grotto (2009) argues that Iran must never be allowed to go ahead with its plans because â€Å"†¦the emergence of additional nuclear-capable states in the Middle East presents more possibilities for miscalculation and mistake, which raises the chances of a nuclear conflagration† (p. 45). If this view is reinforced, the authors of the analyzed article are therefore right to suggest that the United States should in fact be in the forefront in providing countries such as Israel and Saudi Arabia with advanced ballistic missile defenses to guard against Iranâ₠¬â„¢s threats. Conclusion The prospect of a nuclear-armed Iran, which seems to be the conclusion of the authors of the analyzed article, raises the fundamental question of whether the international community can develop effective policies to deter Tehran from using its nuclear weapons (Grotto, 2009). The proposition that the International community can deter Iran from developing or using nuclear arsenal against its perceived enemies, particularly Israel, rests on a series of judgments about the goals and behaviors of the country’s political and religious leaders. To date, the behaviors and actions of these leaders remain questionable since all efforts to request Tehran to accept reassuring constraints on its nuclear program have gone unheeded, thus the need for the international community to do whatever it is within their reach to destroy Iran’s nuclear facilities for the main purpose of the realization of a peaceful world. Reference List Bon-Meir, A. (2010). Israelâ⠂¬â„¢s response to a nuclear Iran. International Journal of World Peace, 27(1), 61-78. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. Edelman, E.S., Kreqinevich, A.F., Montgomery, E.B. (2011). The dangers of a nuclear Iran. Foreign Affairs, 90(1), 66-81. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier Database. Grotto, A. (2009). Is Iran a martyr state? Brown Journal of World Affairs, 16(1), 45-58. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. Silverstein, R. (2010). Iran, Israel and the U.S.: Resolving the nuclear impasse. Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics Culture, 16(3/4), 52-56. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. The Economist. (2011). Nuclear Iran, anxious Israel. Retrieved from This essay on Nuclear Iran, Anxious Israel was written and submitted by user TheInitiative to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

The New PSAT, Redesigned in 2015 Complete Guide

The New PSAT, Redesigned in 2015 Complete Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you're a high school student planning on taking the PSAT, you'll be taking the new and redesigned PSAT. This new version of the test startedin October 2015was administeredto all students across the country. We’ll let you know all about the PSATformat, scoring, and content and what you need to know to be prepared. Not only is the 2015 PSAT an important step in prepping for the SATs, but it also qualifies you for National Merit distinctions and scholarships. Let’s dive into the changes in format, scoring, and content being made to the redesigned PSAT and what these changes mean for your test prep. Changes in Format The new, redesigned PSAT is 35 minutes longer than the old PSAT. It clocks in at 2 hours and 45 minutes, rather than 2 hours and 10 minutes. Instead of five multiple-choice answers, the PSAT now offers only four. This means you have a better chance of getting the answer right if you guess! The following chart breaks down the time and number of questions per section: Section Time Number of Questions Reading 60 minutes 48 questions Writing and Language 35 minutes 44 questions Math 70 minutes 47 questions Total 165 minutes 139 questions What Format Changes in the New PSAT Mean for Your Prep The new test is longer, so train your focus. Since the test is still pretty new, there aren't a lot of official practice tests to take. So far, College Board has come out with two official sample PSATs, which you can download and score. Make sure to take note of the changes between this test and older versions. New PSAT Practice Test 1 - Answer Explanations- Score Your Test New PSAT Practice Test 2 - Answer Explanations - Score Your Test Since having only two practice tests gives you limited options, it's also a good idea to use older practice tests. If you are practicing with full-length old practice tests, give yourself an extra section to practice test-taking for that longer chunk of time. As you practice, take note of your energy and attention. Take short breaks and anything else you need to keep focus for that amount of time. The new PSAT also closely resembles the new SAT, which was firstadministered in Marchof 2016. Except for the fact that the PSAT doesn't have an essay, the two tests have very similar content, format, and even scoring. Because of this, you can also use these eight practice tests for the new SAT to prep, while still keeping an eye out for any differences between the new PSAT and new SAT. New SAT Practice Test 1 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 2 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 3 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 4 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 5 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 6 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 7 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 8 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 9 - Answer Key New SAT Practice Test 10 - Answer Key The new scoring system on the PSAT is designed to help you predict your SAT score. Below I'll explain thechanges in the scoring systemfor both the new PSAT and new SAT and how you can incorporate this awareness into your studying. Changes in Scoring The redesigned PSATisscored on a scaled between 320 and 1520. You can score on a range from 160 to 760 for Math and 160 to 760 for Evidence-Based Reading and Writing. In addition tothese section scores, your score report will also tell you subscores forMath, Reading, and Writing and Language between 8 and 38. This will give you a sense of which sections you're best at and where you need improvement.Unlike the old PSAT, the redesigned PSAT gives no penalties for wrong answers. The SAT returned to the 1600 scoring system it usedback in the day, before 2005. It now hasa maximum composite score of 800 for Math and 800 for Evidence-Based Reading and Writing combined. As I mentioned above, your PSAT score is meant to predict your SAT score. The PSAT scale doesn't go up to 1600 exactly since the SAT is a more difficult test than the PSAT. While a 1300 on the PSAT suggests you might score around a 1300 on the SAT, a perfect PSAT score doesn't necessarily guarantee perfection on the SAT. The two scoring scales coincide with one another, but the PSAT is shifted down to account for its differences in difficulty level. Keep this discrepancy in mind when interpreting your PSAT scores from your practice tests and the official test itself. Disappointed with your PSAT performance? Want to improve your PSAT score by 150 points? We have the industry's leading PSAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Check out our 5-day free trial today: What Scoring Changes in the Redesigned PSAT Mean for Your Prep Because they eliminated the wrong answer penalty, you don’t have to devise a strategy anymore for which questions to guess on and which to leave blank. Give all of them your best guess, even if you are unsure. If you leave any blank, save enough time at the end of each section to bubble in all your answers. When you’re taking a practice test, make sure to mark which ones are random guesses so you can review them when you’re finished. To make the most out of your practice tests, you want to really analyze why you missed a question and what you need to do- review content, work at a faster pace, etc.- to ace that question type the next time. Since the National Merit Scholarship Corporation is considering your composite score, rather than your section scores, all sections are important for qualifying for National Merit Semifinalist, Finalist, and scholarships. Changes in Content The changes that weremade to the content of the PSATmatch the revisions to the SAT. Overall, the content is more evidence- and context-based, featuring real world scenarios and data analysis. Emphasized skills include depth of analysis, interpretation of a word or idea in context, and multi-step problem solving. Check out the "Skills Crosswalk" for all three sections on College Board. Gone are the days of studying long lists of obscure vocabulary- the new PSAT (and SAT) tests that you understand the meaning and connotation of a word within the context of a passage. Similarly, grammar questions ask you to revise sentences within the context of passages, not as stand-alone sentences. All of the sections will include graphs and charts to test your ability to interpret, describe, and represent data visually or in words. The following example is taken from College Board’s New PSAT Sample Questions for the math section. Math questions also include multi-step grid-in word problems. They are going to focus more on algebra and data analysis and less on geometry. The geometry problems that are still there ask you to solve problems involving area, volume, or line, angle, and triangle theorems. What This Means for Your Prep Focus on sharpening your skills of problem-solving, data interpretation, and understanding grammar and vocabulary through context. These skills are more connected to what you learn in class and real life. You can develop them through reading and writing widely and often, as well as by paying attention to data representation and analysis in your math and science classes. When you’re reading, take notes on the work’s structure and organization. Consider the passage’s theme, tone, style, etc. and make sure you can point to specific lines that support your ideas. Get a sense of the various connotations of words in different contexts, rather than memorizing lists of vocabulary. For example, â€Å"brilliant† may mean exceptionally smart when describing a person, but it suggests bright and vivid when describing a color. Many of the skills and knowledge being tested remain the same from the old PSAT- understanding of literary terms and elements, depth of analysis and interpretation, working knowledge of various mathematical concepts. The new PSAT asks you to go one step further: to back up your answer with evidence, whether it is from a passage or chart, and to understand the relationships among words and numbers. Don't stop here: check out our collection of free practice questions and full-length tests for the PSAT, plus learn more about how to use old practice tests and material to prep effectively for the new PSAT. PSAT Comparison Chart Below is a chart comparing key points for the old version of the PSAT and the new version of the exam. You can use this to quickly see some of the most important differences between the two tests. Former PSAT New PSAT Total Scoring Scale 60-240 320-1520 Section Score Scales Critical Reading: 20-80Math: 20-80Writing: 20-80 Evidence-Based Reading and Writing: 160-760Math: 160-760 Testing Time 2 hours and 10 minutes 2 hours and 45 minutes Number of Answer Choices 5 4 Guessing Penalty Lose  ¼ point for every incorrect answer No guessing penalty To Find Out More... To learn more about the changes from the test makers, check out College Board’s site. As this site discusses the PSAT and SAT together, you’ll see the similarities in the two redesigns. The PSAT, unlike the SAT, still does not have an essay. Students who are taking the PSAT this fall don’t have as much practice material as past classes had, but you can still prep very effectively and get a high score if you are aware of the changes. As time goes on, more and more practice material for the new PSAT will become available. What’s Next? What scores do you need to qualify for the National Merit Scholarship? Read about what scores qualify on the new PSAT scoring scale. How can you win a National Merit Scholarship? We describe the different kinds of scholarships and what you need to do to qualify. Curious about the SAT changes that were implemented in2016? Read our detailed guide to the redesigned SAT. Want to get a perfect SAT score? Read about what it takes from an SAT perfect scorer. Want to improve your SAT score by 160points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Long Term Consequences of Colonizing Africa Research Paper

Long Term Consequences of Colonizing Africa - Research Paper Example Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Germany also participated but were some of the minor players when compared with the other countries mentioned. By the end of the nineteenth century almost all the entire continent was under political control of at least one European power. European expansion into Africa was encouraged mostly by the industrialization era in Europe as those countries sought raw materials for new and growing markets. Many historians, however, felt that there were many and varied reasons. â€Å"There was the lure of adventure, the search for personal freedom, the sense of mission. There was greed and vanity and lust for power.† 1 The decolonization of Africa, for the most part, took place towards the middle of the twentieth century. Many of the problems faced by Africa today can be attributed to the impact of colonization. There has also been positive impacts, however, that have helped to move the continent forward since the pre-colonial era. One of the major long term consequences of colonizing Africa is the political culture of the different countries. Prior to the colonial era most of Africa could be described as a stateless society. Many of the borders of these modern states were created according to the whims and fancies of the different colonial leaders. â€Å"Namibia’s odd shape was created by the strategic requirements of a German foreign minister†2 . The current political rulers of the varied African countries retained the boundaries set by the colonial rulers with the exception of modern day Tanzania and Eritrea. . This in some way helped in the social identity of the different nations. Hodder stated that ‘once the colonial boundaries of Africa have been drawn up they acquired a permanence, which assisted by unified administration within them, helped to engender modern African unity’3 . In the establishment of the Organization of African States in 1963, on of the agreement made by the members was